Sobre una nueva Constitución para Chile – Parte 1

Como se trata de un asunto de tanta relevancia en la historia de la República, queremos aportar con nuestro análisis de algunos capítulos y artículos de la propuesta de la Nueva Constitución. Hemos ido espigando el texto y citamos parte de él, comentando algunos de sus artículos. Nadie debería permanecer al margen de la lectura y análisis de un documento que nos involucra a tod@s, expert@s o no, pues se trata del marco que regirá el destino de la patria de todos l@s chilen@s.

Charles Abello Aguayo y Braulio R. Fernández

CAPÍTULO 1, PRINCIPIOS Y DISPOSICIONES GENERALES

Artículo 1 (LA REPÚBLICA DE CHILE)

  1. Chile es un Estado social y democrático de derecho. Es plurinacional, intercultural, regional y ecológico.
  2. Se constituye como una república solidaria. Su democracia es inclusiva y paritaria. Reconoce como valores intrínsecos e irrenunciables la dignidad, la libertad, la igualdad sustantiva de los seres humanos y su relación indisoluble con la naturaleza.

¿Quién podría estar en desacuerdo con esto? Negar que Chile es plurinacional es negar que está compuesto por pueblos o naciones indígenas, cuya existencia –incluso anterior– es parte de nuestra realidad como país. Desconocer lo que es, obedecería a una negación de la realidad. En cuanto a “Estado social y democrático”, ¿de qué manera esto pudiera no ser bueno para tod@s? Lo mismo es considerar valores irrenunciables como son la dignidad, la libertad, la igualdad sustantiva de los seres humanos y su estrecha relación con la naturaleza y su cuidado.

Artículo 2 (SOBERANÍA DE CHILE)

  1. La soberanía reside en el pueblo de Chile, conformado por diversas naciones. Se ejerce democráticamente, de manera directa y representativa, reconociendo como límite los derechos humanos en cuanto atributo que deriva de la dignidad humana
  2. Ningún individuo ni sector del pueblo puede atribuirse su ejercicio.

Está claro, como principio, que la soberanía radica en el pueblo de Chile, sin que nadie, ni persona ni grupo, pueda arrogársela.

Artículo 3 (CHILE, TERRITORIO ÚNICO E INDIVISIBLE)

Chile, en su diversidad geográfica, natural, histórica y cultural, forma un territorio único e indivisible.

La plurinacionalidad, los reconocimientos de los pueblos y naciones indígenas y sus culturas, no significa que Chile deje de ser un solo territorio, una sola República. No hay tal fragmentación del país, y escribir esto en la Constitución es reconocer lo que es.

Artículo 5 (PUEBLOS Y NACIONES EN EL MARCO DE LA UNIDAD DE LA REPÚBLICA)

  1. Chile reconoce la coexistencia de diversos pueblos y naciones en el marco de la unidad del Estado.
  2. Son pueblos y naciones indígenas preexistentes los Mapuche, Aymara, Rapanui, Licknanantay, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Chango, Kawéscar, Yagán y otros que puedan ser reconocidos en la forma que establezca la ley.

Pueblos y naciones indígenas que son parte de la República de Chile. Se los reconoce e incorpora su cultura en el marco de la unidad de Chile.

Artículo 7

Chile está conformado por entidades territoriales autónomas y territorios especiales, en un marco de equidad y solidaridad, preservando la unidad e integridad del Estado. […]

El reconocimiento de “entidades territoriales autónomas y territorios especiales”, se da preservando la unidad territorial. Otra cosa no está contemplada en esta Constitución.

Artículo 8

Las personas y los pueblos son interdependientes con la naturaleza y forman con ella un conjunto inseparable. El Estado reconoce y promueve el buen vivir como una relación de equilibrio entre las personas, la naturaleza y la organización de la sociedad.

Una Constitución que explicita la relación ser humano-naturaleza, como parte de un conjunto armónico de beneficios mutuos.

Artículo 9 (CHILE, ESTADO LAICO, RESPETO A LA LIBERTAD DE RELIGIÓN)

El Estado es laico. En Chile se respeta y garantiza la libertad de religión y de creencias espirituales. […]

Se reconoce un Estado laico, con pleno respeto a los diversos credos religiosos en el marco de esta Constitución y las leyes.

Artículo 12 (ESTADO PLURILINGÜE, CASTELLANO EL IDIOMA OFICIAL)

  1. El Estado es plurilingüe. Su idioma oficial es el castellano. Los idiomas indígenas son oficiales en sus territorios y en zonas de alta densidad poblacional de cada pueblo y nación indígena. […]

Se reconocen las lenguas de los pueblos y naciones indígenas, señalando claramente cuál es el idioma oficial de la República: el castellano.

Artículo 13 (BANDERA, ESCUDO, HIMNO NACIONAL: EMBLEMAS DE CHILE)

  1. Son emblemas nacionales de Chile la bandera, el escudo y el himno nacional.
  2. El Estado reconoce los símbolos y emblemas de los pueblos y naciones indígenas.

Se han escuchado comentarios sobre los símbolos patrios, que se buscaba cambiarlos. No es así; se reconocen explícitamente los emblemas de Chile existentes.

Artículo 14 (CHILE, AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE)

  1. […] Chile declara a América Latina y el Caribe como zona prioritaria en sus relaciones internacionales. Se compromete con el mantenimiento de la región como una zona de paz y libre de violencia […].

Pertenecemos a América Latina, no es extraño, entonces, priorizar las relaciones en esta parte del mundo, sin perjuicio de las relaciones económicas y de toda índole con los países fuera del continente. No nos parecen hechos incompatibles.

Artículo 15 (EL ESTADO Y LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS)

  1. Los derechos y las obligaciones establecidos en los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos ratificados y vigentes en Chile, los principios generales del derecho internacional y el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos y el derecho internacional consuetudinario de la misma materia forman parte integral de esta Constitución y gozan de rango constitucional.
  2. El Estado debe prevenir, investigar, sancionar y reparar integralmente las violaciones a los derechos humanos.

Respetar y hacer respetar los derechos humanos es algo ineludible para el Estado, sobre todo después de la experiencia que ha tenido el país en este ámbito.

Artículo 16

  1. El Estado se funda en el principio de supremacía constitucional y en el respeto a los derechos humanos. Los preceptos de esta Constitución obligan a toda persona, grupo, autoridad o institución. […]

3. […] Ninguna magistratura, persona ni grupo de personas, civiles o   militares, puede atribuirse otra autoridad, competencia o derechos que los que expresamente se les haya conferido en virtud de la Constitución y las leyes, ni aun a pretexto de circunstancias extraordinarios.Se explicita la supremacía constitucional en relación al tema de los derechos humanos; nadie, ni civiles ni militares, puede estar sobre lo que señala esta Constitución, ni arrogarse otra autoridad que la que esta señala. Es un mandato para todos los chilen@s; en cualquier circunstancia, el respeto a la Constitución y las leyes y los derechos humanos.

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